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ISBN 10: 
0-9823061-9-9
ISBN 13:
978-0-9823061-9-2
Library of Congress Number: 2011920068
504 pages
Perfect Bind- 9x7
Publication Date: 0711
Shelving:  xxx Oracle In-Focus Series #40

  Linux for the Oracle DBA
The Definitive Reference

Jon Emmons

Retail Price $49.95 /  £34.95
 

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Key Features About the Author Reader Comments
Table of Contents Index Topics Errata
     
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Easy Linux Commands $27.95
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This book will cover all major aspects of Linux system management critical to running Oracle on Linux.  Unlike general system administration books, this book will focus on those tasks most important to Oracle administrators.

The author has broken down the complex subject of Linux administration into easy to digest chapters organized by task.  This makes the subject matter easier to learn and makes it a compelling reference which the reader will go back to for specific information.

 


 

 

Key Features

Learn expert system administration techniques.

• Learn how to monitor and manage your files, processes and memory efficiently.

• Organize your servers to minimize maintenance.

• Customize your Linux environment.

• Automate complex tasks with shell scripts.
 

 

About the Author:


Jon Emmons

  Jon Emmons is an Oracle ACE with many years of full-time experience running Oracle in a UNIX environment. His Oracle experience is reinforced by his many years as a UNIX system administrator. Jon has published extensively about Oracle on his website which continues to receive acclaim from the Oracle community.

Jon's work experience includes both industry and education. In addition to his technical abilities Jon has also been called upon to teach a college course in database management systems. 
     
Technical Editor:    
Mike Bennett    

 Table of Contents:

Chapter 1:  Getting Started with Linux

A Short History

Choosing the Right Linux

Choosing the Hardware Platform

Choosing a Distribution of Linux

Choosing the Linux Version

Where to Get Linux

Installing Linux

Setting Up Disks

Configuring Disks for Oracle

Logging On to the System

Connecting Remotely via SSH

Build A Virtual Test System

Conclusion

 

Chapter 2:  Command Line Basics

About the Command Line

Commands, Options, Arguments and Input

Finding Your Way Around

The  / Directory and Absolute Paths

The Home Directory

Viewing the Command History and Repeating Previous Commands

Changing Things

Viewing Files

cat

more

head and tail

Searching for Files

Learning More

Examining the System

hostname

whoami

uname

df

Conclusion

 

Chapter 3:  Advanced Command Line Use

Variables

Setting, Viewing and Clearing Variables

Exporting Variables

Environment Variables       

Viewing and Controlling What is Executed

Steps to Command Execution

The

Checking What is Executed

Aliases

File and Directory Ownership

File and Directory Permissions

Editing with vi and vim

Making and Undoing Changes

Copying and Pasting

Searching and Replacing

Saving and Exiting

Listing Multiple Commands on One Line

Continuing a Long Command on Another Line

Escaping Special Characters

Single and Double Quotes

Single Quotes

Double Quotes

The Back Quote

Tab Completion

Wildcards and Pattern Matching

Redirecting Input and Output

A Brief Description of Input and Output Streams

Sending Command Output to a File

Reading Input from a File or From the Terminal

Redirecting from One Command to Another

Shell Scripting

Conclusion

 

Chapter 4:  Graphical User Interfaces

Graphical User Interfaces

The

The Built-in Display

X Windows Forwarding

Tunneling X Windows Through SSH

X Windows Forwarding on MS Windows

X Windows Forwarding on Mac OS X

X Windows Forwarding on Linux and UNIX

VNC Server

VNC Clients

Starting the VNC Server

Tunneling VNC through SSH and Connecting

Tunneling VNC and Connecting on OS X

Closing and Reconnecting VNC Sessions

Stopping the VNC Server

Changing the VNC password

Customizing VNC to Use the GNOME Desktop

Setting VNC Server Number or Screen Size

Conclusion

 

Chapter 5:  Meeting Oracle Requirements and Installing Oracle

Oracle Requirements

Hardware Requirements

Software Requirements

Systemwide Requirements

Security Enabled Linux

Creating the Oracle Software Owner and Group

Customizing Shell Limits for the Oracle User

Installing Oracle

Create Required Directories

Download and Unpack Media

Starting the Oracle Installer

Customizing the Oracle User’s Environment

Conclusion

 

Chapter 6:  Starting Up, Shutting Down and Runlevels

Starting Up

The Boot Process

Shutting Down and Restarting

Shutting Down

Restarting

Canceling a Shutdown or Reboot

Setting What Runlevel to Start Into

Changing Runlevels Without Restarting

Booting Directly into Single User Mode

Booting from a CD or DVD

Startup and Shutdown Scripts

Automating Oracle Startup and Shutdown

Starting and Stopping Other Services

Conclusion

 

Chapter 7:  Users and Groups

The Linux Security Model

Determining the Current User, Group and Who is on the System

Who am I Logged in As?

What Groups am I In?

Who Else is Logged into the System?

Who has Recently Logged into the System?

Files Associated with User, Group and Password Management

Getting UID and GID Information for a User

Managing Users

Adding a User

Modify a User

Delete a User

Managing Groups

Adding a Group

Modifying a Group

The Importance of Consistent User and Group IDs

Managing Passwords

Changing Passwords

Password Aging

Acting Like Other Users and Groups

Using su to Change Users

Using su to Run Commands as Other Users

sudo, a More Secure Alternative to su

Conclusion

 

Chapter 8:  Customizing the User Environment

The Login Shell

What Shell am I Using?

Login and Logout Files

Bash Shell Login Behavior

Modifying Login Files

Sharing Login Files

Oracle-specific Environment Settings

Calling the oraenv File

The oratab File

Adding Custom Code to the oraenv File

Variables

The PATH Variable

Aliases

Customizing the Prompt

Special Prompt Characters

Variables and Commands in Prompts

Conclusion

 

Chapter 9:  Scheduling Commands with cron and at

Using cron for Repeating Tasks

The Cron Daemon

Setting Up and Editing a User’s crontab File

The Format of the crontab File

Crontab Entries

Controlling Who Can Use cron

Scheduling One-Time Tasks with at

The At Daemon

Using at to Schedule Tasks

Controlling who can use at

Conclusion

 

Chapter 10:  Process and Service Management

Examining Running Processes

Different Ways to Start Processes

Starting and Managing Background Jobs

Keeping Things from Being Interrupted with nohup

Stopping Processes

pgrep and pkill

The Command Exit Status

Conditional Execution of Processes

Timing Processes

Managing Services (Daemons)

Examining Running Services

Stopping Running Services

Forcing a Service to Reread Its Configuration

Conclusion

 

Chapter 11:  Managing Linux Software

The RPM Package Manager

Examining What is Currently Installed

Installing and Updating Software with RPM

Removing Software with the RPM

Using Update Tools like Yum

Compiling Software from Source Code

Conclusion

 

 

Chapter 12:  Managing Disks and File Systems

File Systems, Disk Devices and Mount Points

Disks and Partitions

File Systems

Logical Volume Manager

Mount Points

The fstab File

Viewing Current File System Information

Viewing Mounted File Systems with the mount Command

Viewing File System Space and Inode Usage

Checking the File System Block Size

Viewing What Files Are in Use

Creating a New File System

Identifying and Partitioning Space to be Used

Building the File System

File System Labels

Mounting and Unmounting File Systems

Mounting a File System

Unmounting a File System

Mounting and Unmounting the CD/DVD Drive

Managing File Systems Using the fstab File

Checking and Repairing File Systems

Manually Checking File Systems with fsck

Checking File Systems Without Unmounting Them

Full Checks on Journaled File Systems

Changing When Full Checks are Run

fsck Running at Startup

Storage Virtualization Concepts

Virtual Devices

Using the Logical Volume Manager

Starting the Logical Volume Manager GUI

Starting the Command Line LVM

File System Performance

Monitoring I/O with iostat

Conclusion

 

Chapter 13:  File and Directory Management

Files, File Types and Directories

Regular Files

Directories

Symbolic Links

Block Devices

Character Devices

Named Pipes

Sockets

Inodes and Hard Links

Creating Files and Directories

Create an Empty File

Creating Directories

Managing Ownership and Permissions

Managing the Owner and Group of a File

Managing File Permissions

Controlling Default Permissions with umask

How Permissions Affect Directories

Additional Permissions Settings

Securing Important Files

Setting Permissions Beyond the Owner and Group

Getting More Information on Files

Helpful ls Options

Viewing File Info with stat

Identifying File Contents

Identifying Who is Using a File

Copying, Moving, Renaming and Removing

Copying Files and Directories

Moving and Renaming Files and Directories

Removing (Deleting) Files and Directories

Managing Hard and Symbolic Links

Searching for Files and Directories

Searching by Name

Searching by Other Attributes

Performing Commands on Search Results

Combining Search Criteria

Comparing Files and Directories

Comparing File and Directory Contents with diff

Backing Up, Archiving and Compressing

Using tar, the Tape Archiver

Using cpio

Using zip and unzip to Compress and Uncompress Files

Using gzip and gunzip to Compress and Uncompress Files

Getting Rid of the Wrong New Line Characters

Splitting and Combining Large Files

Conclusion

 

Chapter 14:  Memory and System Settings

Understanding Memory

Types of Memory

How Memory is Used

Memory Limits

File Caching

Oracle Required Settings

Swap Space

Semaphores

Shared Memory Settings

Other System Settings

Monitoring Memory Usage

Monitoring Memory Usage Using Top

The /proc/meminfo file

Using vmstat to Monitor Memory Usage

Managing the System Clock

Setting the System Clock

Setting the Time Zone

Conclusion

 

Chapter 15:  Networking

Networking Fundamentals

Basic Layers of Networking

IP Addresses and Hostnames

DNS, the Domain Name System

Managing Network Connections

Determining the Current Hostname and IP Address

Changing the Hostname

Changing the IP Address

Application Considerations When Changing Hostname or IP Address

Managing Multiple Network Interfaces

Multihoming a Single Interface

Network Security

The Principle of Least Privilege

Network Firewalls

The Linux Firewall

Disabling Unused Services

Setting up Passwordless SSH

Moving Things Between Servers

scp and sftp

Synchronizing Directories with rsync

Conclusion

 

Chapter 16:  Shell Scripting

Introduction

When to Use Shell Scripts

Getting Started

Your First Shell Script

Basic Scripts

Commenting Your Scripts

Variables

Input and Arguments

Script Output

Sending Output to a Log

Alternate Input Methods

Redirecting Input From a File

Inline Input Redirection

Making Decisions

Comparing Text

Checking Files

Combining Comparisons

Making Simple Decisions with if and else

Choosing from a List with case

Loops

The while Loop

The for Loop

Breaking Out of Loops

Checking Results and Sending Notifications

The Exit Status:  The Unseen Result

Scanning Logs for Output

Checking the Output of Commands

Emails from cron and at Jobs

The mail Command

Conclusion

 

Chapter 17:  Organizing Oracle Files

Oracle’s Optimal Flexible Architecture

OFA Recommendations

Maintaining Oracle Logs and Diagnostic Files

The Admin Directory

Checking the Alert Log

The ADR Directory

Managing the ADR

Managing Multiple Oracle Homes

Managing oratab Entries

Upgrading with Multiple Oracle Homes

The Oracle Inventory

Moving Oracle Files

Moving Control Files

Moving Datafiles

Moving Redo Logs

Conclusion

 

Chapter 18:  Managing Oracle Processes

Using the dbstart and dbshut scripts

Managing the Listener

Managing Unresponsive Processes

Managing Oracle User Processes

Tracking Down User Processes

Hiding Passwords in Process Listings

Conclusion

 

Chapter 19:  The Oracle Scheduler

When to Use the Oracle Scheduler

The Legacy dbms_job Scheduler

How Jobs are Run

Examining the Scheduler Setup and Jobs

Submitting a Job

Using dbms_scheduler

An Overview of the Scheduler

Viewing Job Information

Submitting a Job

File Watchers

Setting Up a File Watcher

Conclusion

 

Chapter 20:  Oracle Enterprise Manager and Grid Control

Working with OEM

Examining the OEM Setup

Creating OEM

Starting and Stopping OEM

Accessing OEM

Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control

The Anatomy of Grid Control

Monitoring and Managing Linux from Grid Control

Conclusion

 

Chapter 21:  Performance Tuning

Monitoring Processor Usage

Examining CPU Usage

Examining the Load Average

Memory Usage

Examining Memory Usage

Monitoring Disk Throughput

Examining Disk Throughput

Monitoring Network Throughput

Examining Network Throughput

Other Monitoring Tools

The System Monitor

Oracle’s OS Watcher

Conclusion

 

Book Conclusion

 

Index:

$

$chapter

$ORACLE_BASE/diag

 

.

.bash_login

.bash_profile

.forward file

.profile

 

/

/boot partition

/dev directory

/dev/null device

/dev/random device

/etc/fstab file

/etc/group

/etc/hosts

/etc/oratab file

/etc/passwd

/etc/profile

/etc/shadow

/etc/sudoers

/etc/sysctl.conf

/home/oracle

 

?

?

 

 

g Oracle installation

 

A

-a option

absolute path

absolute path names

ACLs (access control lists)

admin directory

administration files

ADR retention

adrci

AJAX

Ajax object

alert log

alias

alias command

ampersand (&)

analog clock

application layer

argument

Asianux

at command

at daemon

atd script

atq command

Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR)

awk

 

B

-b option

back quotes

bash shell

binary search path

BIOS

block devices

block size

boot loader

boot partition

Bourne shell (sh)

Bourne-Again Shell (bash)

break statement

buffers value

 

C

case statement

cat command

cd command

CD/DVD-ROM

chage command

character devices

checksum

chgrp command

Chicken of the VNC

chkconfig command

chmod command

chmod g-w

chown command

chsh command

command line

command mode

command name

command prompt

command’s exit status

comparisons

compile process

concatenation

conditional expressions

configure script

control files

control_files

control-z command

cp command

cpio files

CPU usage

credentials

cron

cron.allow file

crond

crontab

crontab command

crontab entry

crontab file

CSS

customizations

-cvf options

 

D

d option

daemons

Database Console URL

datafiles

date

date command

dba group

dba_jobs

dba_scheduler_jobs

dbms_job

dbms_job.change

dbms_job.remove

dbms_job.submit

dbms_scheduler

dbms_scheduler.create_job

dbms_scheduler.drop_job

dbms_scheduler.run_job

dbms_scheduler.set_attribute

dbms_scheduler.stop_job

dbms_stats

dbshut command

dbstart command

default partition layout

delete

device

device names

df command

DHCP

DHCP server

diff command

directories

directory permissions

disable

disk

disk mount points

disk partition

disk space

DISPLAY variable

distribution (distro)

distro

distros

DNS

DOM objects

Domain Name System (DNS)

done keyword

double quotes

dump directories

 

E

-e option

efsck command

echo

echo command

eject command

else-if clause

emca command

emctl command

empty file

enable

env command

event-based job

executable

execute

exit status

export command

ext3

 

F

-f option

FBJS

fdisk command

file command

file comparators

file ownership

file permissions

file systems  

file watcher

find command

firewall setting

for loop

forward file

fsck command

fstab entry

fstab file

 

G

gateway

getenforce command

GID

GNOME desktop

GNU (General Public License)

graphical mode

graphical user interface (GUI)

greater-than symbol (>)

grep command

GRID Control

group

group ID (GID)

groupadd command

groupmod command

groups command

GUI

gunzip command

gzip

 

H

Hard Drives

hard links

hardware platform

hardware requirements

hashbang

head command

history -c

history command

history expansion

HOME

home directory

hostname

hostname command

hosts file

hugemem kernel

 

I

-i option

id

if statement

ifconfig command

info command

init process

init program

init scripts

innerHTML

inode

insert mode

installer

Installer GUI

Internet layer

inventory

iostat command

IP address

IP addresses

iptables

 

J

JavaScript

job number

job_queue_processes

jobs command

journaled file systems

journaling

 

K

kernel

kernel arguments

key authentication

kill command

-kill option

kill scripts

 

L

-l option

last command

less

less-than symbol (<)

linear volume

link layer

Linus Torvalds

Linux desktop

Linux firewall

Linux kernel

Linux security

listener

listener.ora file

ln command

load average

Logical Volume Manager (LVM)

logical volumes

login files

login shell

loopback

loops

ls command

ls -l

ls -l output

lsnrctlservices command

lsof command

lvextend command

LVM

LVM prompt

LVM volume group

 

M

mail command

man command

man page

MANPATH

Master Boot Record (MBR)

mathematical comparators

md5sum command

meminfo

meminfo file

memory limitations

metadata argument

mirroring

mkdir command

mkpart command

more command

mount command

mount point

move Oracle files

move tablespaces

-mtime option

multihoming

multiple Oracle homes

mv command

 

N

-n option

-name option

netmask

network devices

network firewall

network security

Networked File Systems (NFS)

networking

nohup command

nologin shell

 

O

OEL

OEM instance

ondone callback

online resizing

Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA)

option

Oracle Application Server (OAS)

Oracle Database

Oracle Enterprise Linux (OEL)

Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM)

Oracle home directory

Oracle Installer

Oracle inventory

Oracle scheduler

oracle user

ORACLE_HOME

ORACLE_SID

oraenv script

oratab entry

oratab file

other

 

P

-p option

packages

Pageant utility

Parallels Desktop

parted command

parted utility

partition

partition table

partitions

passwd command

password aging

passwords

paste command

PATH

PATH variable

permissions

pgrep command

physical memory

ping command

pipelining

pkill command

platform

Pluggable Authentication Manager (PAM)

POST

post method

principle of least privilege

print command

private key

private network

processes

processor cache

ps command

PS1 variable

PS2 prompt

PS2 variable

public key

PuTTY

pvcreate command

PWD

pwd command

 

Q

-qa option

--queryformat option

Quick Install Guide

 

R

RAC configurations

RAID

RAID levels

RAM

range substitutions

read

read command

RealVNC

Red Hat

Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL)

redirecting input

redirecting output

redirection

redo logs

relative path names

repeat_interval

repository

requireLogin

resize2fs command

responseType

rm command

rmdir command

root partition

root password

root user

root volume

rpm command

RPM Package Manager (RPM)

RPM packages

rsync command

run queue

runInstaller

runlevels

 

S

-S option

scp command

search command

Secure Shell Protocol (SSH)

Security Enabled Linux (SELinux)

semaphore values

semaphores

service command

set command

setenforce command

setInnerFBML

setTextValue

setuid bit

sftp command

shared memory

shebang

shell built-in

shell escape character

shell scripting

shell scripts

SHELL variable

shmall

shmmax

shmmni

shutdown abort

shutdown command

shutdown immediate

SIGHUP signal

SIGINIT signal

SIGKILL signal

SIGTERM signal

single quotes

single user mode

-size option

slash directory

sockets

software

software requirements

sort command

special characters

split command

sqlplus

SSH

SSH session

standard error

standard error output

standard input

standard output

standard streams

start scripts

stat command

status.sh script

sticky bit

string comparators

striping

su command

subnet

sudo command

superblock

SUSE Linux

swap

swap partition

swap space

swap volume

symbolic link (symlink)

system clock

system-config-date command

system-config-network command

 

T

tab

tab completion

tablespaces

tail command

tar command

tar file

TCP/IP

telinit command

Terminal application

terminal session

time command

top

top command

touch command

transport layer

tune2fs command

tunnel VNC

tunneling

 

U

-u option

UID

umask

umask command

umount command

unalias command

uname command

undo command

unset command

unzip command

upgrades

uptime command

user

user ID (UID)

-user option

user_jobs

useradd

useradd command

userdel command

usermod command

 

V

variables

version

vgextend command

vi

vim

VIRT column

virtual interface

virtual machine

Virtual Network Computing (VNC)

virtual system

VirtualBox

virtualization

vmstat

VMware

VNC server

VNC Viewer

vncserver

volume group

 

W

w command

whatis command

whereis

which command

while loop

who command

whoami command

wildcards

write

 

X

-X flag

-x option

-X option

X Windows

X Windows forwarding

X Windows Server

X Windows System

X

X86

X86_64

xclock

xclock program

Xming X Server

 

Y

Yellowdog Updater Modified (Yum)

 

Z

zip files

Reader Comments:

Errata:

 

   

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